Category Archives: Danish Cinema

Research on film industries

THis week a collection of articles looking at film industries from perspectives that are typically different from that typically found in film studies. As usual, the version linked to may not be the final version published.

There is a lot of interesting research of film industries available through the Copenhagen Business School’s Knowledge portal (here), and by searching its research database and open archive. The CBS has a robust approach to open access and most of the research is available in English. Topics include:

  • The internationalization of the Indian film industry
  • City branding and film festivals
  • Film labour markets
  • The Danish film industry
  • Globalization and the cinema

Bakker G 2004 At the Origins of Increased Productivity Growth in Services: Productivity, Social Savings and the Consumer Surplus of the Film Industry, 1900-1938, Working Paper 81, Department of Economic History, London School of Eocnomics.

This paper estimates and compares the benefits cinema technology generated to society in Britain, France and the US between 1900 and 1938. It is shown how cinema industrialised live entertainment, by standardisation, automation and making it tradable. The economic impact is measured in three ways: TFP-growth, social savings in 1938 and the consumer surplus enjoyed in 1938. Preliminary findings suggest that the entertainment industry accounted for 1.5 to 1.7 percent of national TFP-growth and for 0.9 to 1.6 percent of real GDP-growth in the three countries. Social savings were highest in the US (c. 2.5 billion dollars and three million workers) and relatively modest in Britain and France, possibly because of the relative abundance of skilled live-entertainment workers. Comparative social savings at entertainment PPP-ratios inflate British social savings to above the US level. Converging exchange rates and PPP price ratios suggest rapid international market integration. The paper’s methodology and findings may give insight in technological change in other service industries that were also industrialised.

Cazetta S 2010 Cultural clusters and the city: the example of Filmbyen in Copenhagen, ACEI 16th International Conference on Cultural Economics, 9-12 June 2010, Copenhagen, Denmark.

This paper explores the origins and development of Filmbyen (FilmCity), a media hub created around Lars von Trier‟s film company Zentropa in the outskirts of Copenhagen.

In the first part of the paper the theoretical framework is introduced, with a review of the relevant literature concerning the role of culture in urban development and with a focus on clustering in the cultural industries.

Subsequently, after analyzing what kind of impact the film industry has on local economic development, and more specifically what role it plays in urban and regional development strategies (looking at Greater Copenhagen), the case of Filmbyen is studied in detail. The location patterns of film and film-related companies based in this special district are investigated with a small-scale survey – observing in particular what are the advantages of clustering, what networks are created, what kind of urban environment comes about.

Coe NM 2000 The view from out West: embeddedness, inter-personal relations and the development of an indigenous film industry in Vancouver, Geoforum 31: 391-407.

This paper considers the development of a particular cultural industry, the indigenous film and television production sector, in a specific locality, Vancouver (British Columbia, Canada). Vancouver’s film and television industry exhibits a high level of dependency on the location shooting of US funded productions, a relatively mobile form of foreign investment capital. As such, the development of locally developed and funded projects is crucial to the long-term sustainability of the industry. The key facilitators of growth in the indigenous sector are a small group of independent producers that are attempting to develop their own projects within a whole series of constraints apparently operating at the local, national and international levels. At the international level, they are situated within a North American cultural industry where the funding, production, distribution and exhibition of projects is dominated by US multinationals. At the national level, both government funding schemes and broadcaster purchasing patterns favour the larger production companies of central Canada. At the local level, producers have to compete with the demands of US productions for crew, locations and equipment. I frame my analysis within notions of the embeddedness or embodiment of social and economic relations, and suggest that the material realities of processes operating at the three inter-linked scales, are effectively embodied in a small group of individual producers and their inter-personal networks.

Hoefert de Turégano T 2006 Public Support for the International Promotion of European Films, European Audiovisual Observatory.

Jones C 2001 Co-evolution of entrpreneurial careers, institutional rules, and competitive dymanics in American Film, 1895-1920, Organization Studies 22 (6): 911-944.

An historical case analysis of the American film industry is undertaken to gain a better understanding of the co-evolutionary processes of entrepreneurial careers, institutional rules and competitive dynamics in emerging industries. The study compares technology and content-focused periods, which were driven by entrepreneurs with different career histories and characterized by distinct institutional rules and competitive dynamics. Archival data and historical analysis is used to trace how entrepreneurial careers, firm capabilities, institutional rules, and competitive dynamics co-evolved. A co-evolutionary perspective is integrated with insights from institutional and resource-based theories to explain how the American film industry emerged, set an initial trajectory with specific institutional rules and competitive dynamics, and then changed.

Mezias Sj and Kuperman JC 2001 The community dynamics of entrepreneurship: the birth of the American film industry, 1895-1929, Journal of Business Venturing 16 (3): 209-233. [NB: this is not the full abstract, which is actually longer than some research papers].

This paper provides insight for practitioners by exploring the collective process of entrepreneurship in the context of the formation of new industries. In contrast to the popular notions of entrepreneurship, with their emphasis on individual traits, we argue that successful entrepreneurship is often not solely the result of solitary individuals acting in isolation. In many respects, entrepreneurs exist as part of larger collectives. First and foremost, there is the population of organizations engaging in activities similar to those of the entrepreneurial firm, which constitute a social system that can affect entrepreneurial success. In addition, there is also a community of populations of organizations characterized by interdependence of outcomes. Individual entrepreneurs may be more successful in the venturing process if they recognize some of the ways in which their success may depend on the actions of entrepreneurs throughout this community. Thus, we urge practitioners and theorists alike to include a community perspective in their approach to entrepreneurship. We also suggest that one way of conceptualizing the community of relevance might be in terms of populations of organizations that constitute the value chain. For example, in the early film industry a simple value chain with three functions—production, distribution, and exhibition—is a convenient heuristic for considering what populations of organizations might be relevant. As we show in our case study of that industry, a community model offers insights into the collective nature of entrepreneurship and the emergence of new industries.

Orbach BY and Einav L 2007 Uniform prices for differentiated goods: the case of the movie-theater industry, International Review of Law and Economics 27 (2): 129-153.

Since the early 1970s, movie theaters in the United States have employed a pricing model of uniform prices for differentiated goods. At any given theater, one price is charged for all movies, seven days a week, 365 days a year. This pricing model is puzzling in light of the potential profitability of prices that vary with demand characteristics. Another unique aspect of the motion-picture industry is the legal regime that imposes certain constraints on vertical arrangements between distributors and retailers (exhibitors) and attempts to facilitate competitive bidding for films. We explore the justifications for uniform pricing in the industry and show their limitations. We conclude that exhibitors could increase profits by engaging in variable pricing and that they could do so more easily if the legal constraints on vertical arrangements are lifted.